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Wednesday, November 23, 2022

Find satellite images of any location. Discover cities and mountains with tours.

Find satellite images of any location. Discover cities and mountains with tours.Find satellite images of any location. Discover cities and mountains with tours.
Explore the whole world from above with satellite imagery and 3D terrain of the entire globe and 3D buildings in hundreds of cities around the world.



Zoom to your house or anywhere else then dive in for a 360° perspective with Street View. See the world from a new point of view with Voyager, a collection of guided tours from BBC Earth, NASA, National Geographic and more. And now, visualise the immersive maps and stories that you've created with Google Earth on web on your mobile device.


from pole to pole. Latitude and longitude lines are numbered. The intersection of latitude and longitude lines, called coordinates, identify the exact location of a place.


On maps showing greater detail, the grid is often given numbers and letters. The boxes made by the grid may be called A, B, C, and so on across the top of the map, and 1, 2, 3, and so on across the left side. In the map’s index, a park’s location might be given as B4. The user finds the park by looking in the box where column B and row 4 cross.

A map is a symbolic representation of selected characteristics of a place, usually drawn on a flat surface. Maps present information about the world in a simple, visual way. They teach about the world by showing sizes and shapes of countries, locations of features, and distances between places. Maps can show distributions of things over Earth, such as settlement patterns. They can show exact locations of houses and streets in a city neighborhood.


Mapmakers, called cartographers, create maps for many different purposes. Vacationers use road maps to plot routes for their trips. Meteorologists—scientists who study weather—use weather maps to prepare forecasts. City planners decide where to put hospitals and parks with the help of maps that show land features and how the land is currently being used.


Some common features of maps include scale, symbols, and grids.
Scale
All maps are scale models of reality. A map’s scale indicates the relationship between the distances on the map and the actual distances on Earth. This relationship can be expressed by a graphic scale, a verbal scale, or a representative fraction.

The most common type of graphic scale looks like a ruler. Also called a bar scale, it is simply a horizontal line marked off in miles, kilometers, or some other unit measuring distance

The verbal scale is a sentence that relates distance on the map to distance on Earth. For example, a verbal scale might say, “one centimeter represents one kilometer” or “one inch represents eight miles.”


The representative fraction does not have specific units. It is shown as a fraction or ratio—for example, 1/1,000,000 or 1:1,000,000. This means that any given unit of measure on the map is equal to one million of that unit on Earth. So, 1 centimeter on the map represents 1,000,000 centimeters on Earth, or 10 kilometers. One inch on the map represents 1,000,000 inches on Earth, or a little less than 16 miles.


The size of the area covered helps determine the scale of a map. A map that shows an area in great detail, such as a street map of a neighborhood, is called a large-scale map because objects on the map are relatively large. A map of a larger area, such as a continent or the world, is called a small-scale map because objects on the map are relatively small.


Today, maps are often computerized. Many computerized maps allow the viewer to zoom in and out, changing the scale of the map. A person may begin by looking at the map of an entire city that only shows major roads and then zoom in so that every street in a neighborhood is visible.


Symbols

Cartographers use symbols to represent geographic features. For example, black dots represent cities, circled stars represent capital cities, and different sorts of lines represent boundaries, roads, highways, and rivers. Colors are often used as symbols. Green is often used for forests, tan for deserts, and blue for water. A map usually has a legend, or key, that gives the scale of the map and explains what the various symbols represent.

Some maps show relief, or changes in elevation. A common way to show relief is contour lines, also called topographic lines. These are lines that connect points that have equal elevation. If a map shows a large enough area, contour lines form circles.


A group of contour line circles inside one another indicates a change in elevation. As elevation increases, these contour line circles indicate a hill. As elevation decreases, contour line circles indicate a depression in the earth, such as a basin.


Grids

Many maps include a grid pattern, or a series of crossing lines that create squares or rectangles. The grid helps people locate places on the map. On small-scale maps, the grid is often made up of latitude and longitude lines. Latitude lines run east-west around the globe, parallel to the Equator, an imaginary line that circles the middle of Earth. Longitude lines run north-south, from pole to pole. Latitude and longitude lines are numbered. The intersection of latitude and longitude lines, called coordinates, identify the exact location of a place.


On maps showing greater detail, the grid is often given numbers and letters. The boxes made by the grid may be called A, B, C, and so on across the top of the map, and 1, 2, 3, and so on across the left side. In the map’s index, a park’s location might be given as B4. The user finds the park by looking in the box where column B and row 4 cross.


Other Map Features: DOGSTAILS

Along with scale, symbols, and grids, other features appear regularly on maps. A good way to remember these features is DOGSTAILS: date, orientation, grid, scale, title, author, index, legend, and sources.


Title, date, author, and sources usually appear on the map though not always together. The map’s title tells what the map is about, revealing the map’s purpose and content. For example, a map might be titled “Political Map of the World” or “Battle of Gettysburg, 1863.”


“Date” refers to either the time the map was made or the date relevant to the information on the map. A map of areas threatened by a wildfire, for instance, would have a date, and perhaps even a time, to track the progress of the wildfire. A historical map of the ancient Sumerian Empire would have a date range of between 5,000 B.C. and 1,000 B.C.


Noting a map’s author is important because the cartographer’s perspective will be reflected in the content. Assessing accuracy and objectivity also requires checking sources. A map’s sources are where the author of the map got his or her information. A map of a school district may list the U.S. Census Bureau, global positioning system (GPS) technology, and the school district’s own records as its sources.


Orientation refers to the presence of a compass rose or simply an arrow indicating directions on the map. If only an arrow is used, the arrow usually points north.


A map’s index helps viewers find a specific spot on the map using the grid. A map’s legend explains what the symbols on a map mean.


Map Projections

Transferring information from the spherical, or ball-shaped, surface of Earth onto a flat piece of paper is called projection. A globe, a spherical model of Earth, accurately represents the shapes and locations of the continents. But if a globe were cut in half and each half were flattened out into a map, the result would be wrinkled and torn. The size, shape, and relative location of land masses would change.

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Projection is a major challenge for cartographers. Every map has some sort of distortion. The larger the area covered by a map, the greater the distortion. Features such as size, shape, distance, or scale can be measured accurately on Earth, but once projected on a flat surface only some, not all, of these qualities can be accurately represented. For example, a map can retain either the correct sizes of landmasses or the correct shapes of very small areas, but not both.

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